(Results of the 1971-1973 Australian Universities' Expeditions)

        survey, glaciology, meteorology, biology and palaeoenvironments),



Title pages: list of illustrations, preface, notes and abbreviations
     - Preface by Uwe Radok (pdf 515k)

Section 1 Mt Jaya: The area and its exploration
     - Geoffrey S. Hope
(pdf 732k)
Section 2 Topographic survey and cartography
     - Edward G. Anderson
(pdf 475k)
Section 3 Ice areas on Mt Jaya: Their extent and recent history
     - Ian Allison and James A. Peterson
(pdf 1.5Mb)
Section 4 Glacier regimes and dynamics
     - Ian Allison
(pdf 646k)
Section 5 Climate and microclimate
     - Ian Allison and John Bennett
(pdf 1.3Mb)
Section 6 Cryobiology
     - Erzsébet Kol and Judy A. Peterson
(pdf 517k)
Section 7 The Lakes
     - James A. Peterson
(pdf 766k)
Section 8 Vegetation
     - Geoffrey S. Hope
(pdf 3.7Mb)
Section 9 Palaeoenvironments
     - Geoffrey S. Hope and James A. Peterson
(pdf 1.5Mb)
Section 10 Fauna
     - Jeannette H. Hope
(pdf 1.2Mb)
Section 11 Man on Mt Jaya
     - Geoffrey S. Hope and Jeannette H. Hope
(pdf 1.1Mb)
Index (pdf 182k)

Map 1 Western Sudirman Range, Irian Jaya (pdf 2.6Mb)
Map 2 Carstensz Glacier Area, Irian Jaya (pdf 1.1Mb)




    Puncack Jaya - fotografie:

    (4884 m.n.m., poloha: -4,083/137,183, výstup: 2, 4-11)





Klasický výstup severní stěnou



Mapka klasického výstupu severní stěnou



Severní stěna



Severní stěna
























Freeport - zlatý důl



Tembagapura - zázemí pro Freeport






                                 Pohled na masiv Pohoří Sudirman od Arafurského moře

                           Během 40-50 km se nadmořská výška zvedá až do výše 5 km



Přístup k Puncack Jaye:


Approach Routes


Most climbers Approach Carstensz Pyramid from the north, although early expeditions chose the southern Approach as it offered the shortest Route from the nearest coastline. Now, the Dani village of 10000 people, named Ilaga northern from the Carstensz Pyramid is the starting point. One can take a charter flight from either Nabire or Wamena to Ilaga whereby you skip the jungle. From Ilaga, the highland village, it is a six-day walk from Base Camp with local porters. The Route to Carstensz passes thorugh rainforest and large areas of equatorial bog to reach the uneven limestone plateau. It finally crosses the New Zealand Pass, descending to Base Camp by the lakes in the Upper Meren Valley and then takes an hour to reach the start of the Normal Route on the North Face. One can cut this trip shorter with 2 days by charting a helicopter that takes you to the base of the New Zealand Pass.



From the last airstrip at Ilaga village, around 5-6 days hard and tough trekking through the stone-age culture, 6-7 hours walk in one day, cloud-rain forest, hilly terrain, muddy trail, highland swamp, crossing streams with rain shower around 4-7 hours a day. Normally 4 days return: BC to Ilaga village, then by charter plane fly directly to Jayapura


Some people, some teams have been Approaching from the south, via Timika through the Freeport copper mine. Special permission is required for this. This Route is much shorter to Base Camp than the above mentioned Route.


Old climber's route: in the old days the Freeport mine gave permission to use their road to the mine. This is a long gravel road all the way from Timika at the coast through and over the mountains. You pass Tembagapura, which is a 20,000 people town in the middle of the mountains, built especially for the miners. The road continues up the mountain, through some tunnels until it ends up at the pit. Instead of driving through the tunnels you can also use the Swiss made cable car to get from 2700m to 3500m quickly. At the east side of the the pit is a narrow muddy track where you enter the park. 


From the mine it is a few hours walking to the mountain. You climb up a muddy track, pass the "Zebra Wall" en continue along some small lakes in the Merenvalley until you climb up to the Basecamp valley. 

Beware that this route takes you from sea level to BC within 7 hours if you do not sleep at Zebra Wall and severe altitude problems can occur for the not acclimatized. Even when sleeping at Zebra wall (3700m) this is a serious problem. 


Because the miners don't like too many nosey people in this polluting place anymore the only option is to do a 5 day trekking from Ilaga through the jungle, moors and hills of Irian Jaya or take a helicopter ride to Zebra Wall In 2002 the regular trekking route has changed again as it is getting harder and harder to find a way around the bureaucracy, war zones and the powerful Freeport mine. 


The alternative route through Singa village is now also forbidden, so effectively the mountain is closed until further notice.


You need several permits from different places (ministries, army, police etc) to travel to the island in general and climbing the mountain specifically. Permits are very hard to get, best is to team up with an organized trip as it will cost you months, even years to organize it yourself and even then the permits may not be valid when you get there... Also as happened often the last few years, the entire area can be sealed off without warning and all permits will be void if anything happens. Irian Jaya wants to be independent since 1969 and the free Papua movement (OPM) sometimes attacks Indonesians or Westerners to attract attention for their cause. Even though most actions are peaceful, like raising the Papua flag, this is enough reason fro the Indonesian army to seal the area for an indefinite period of time, which has happened last year and is still going on. Currently the Ilaga, Singa and mine routes are all closed due to the violence in the country; the only possibility for climbing Carstensz is to fly in and out the area by helicopter. But you still need a permit and these are not being issued right now.



There have other route, from Timika by helicopter to Hoya (it's a Amungme tribal village), and 5 days walking up to base camp.  But this route have big problem, cause No porter.




profil přístupové cesty



Přístupová mapa č.1


Přístupová mapa č.2


Přístupová mapa č.3




Přístupová mapa č.4



Přístupová mapa č.5



Výstup na Puncack Jayu:


Climbing Routes


While getting to the place itself is already hard enough, it is an even greater challenge to scale the heights of the Carstensz Pyramid. Good thing that you have several choices of Routes to take to reach the summit, which is considered as the most technically challenging mountain of the Seven Summits. Read on below to learn more about the different Climbing Routes.


1.   The Normal Route


    Most parties climb directly out of the first notch via a strenuous pitch, but the first Carstensz climbers avoided this by descending on to the South Face and following broken ledges until the crest could be regained. The average ascent time is seven hours.


2.   East Ridge


     A long ascent in a fine position, mostly scrambling but with several more difficult narrow sections and some loose rocks.


3.   The American Direct


     A direct line straight up the summit fall-line giving superb Climbing at a continuous grade on the top headwall.


The different Climbing Routes and Approaches of Carstensz give you almost every kind of Climbing challenge you need. Want the high level of difficulty thrown at you by the East Ridge or would you prefer a more straightforward Route? The choice is yours.


The route on Carstensz Pyramid follows a series of gullies up the north face for 500m of solid rock before breaking out on the ridge. Riddled with notches, the summit ridge undulates for half a kilometer from this point to pitch and leave a rope fixed to jumar on our return. On our descent we will rappel short distance and down climb most of the way. The rock is extremely good, rarely loose, and always provides good friction even in wet weather. The rock climbing difficulty on Carstensz is up to 5.8 for short steeps, but most of the climbing is scrambling. It is important that you have basic rock climbing and are comfortable with rappelling and jumaring. In the highland areas, day time temperatures should range between 75 and 45 degrees -F with most evenings about 45 degrees -F Expect warm afternoon showers, which may turn cool in encountered on a mountain pass. Closer to Carstensz, snow or inclement weather may accrue. Temperatures can range from 28 degree-F to 60 degree-F with sunshine occasionally in the mornigs, then rainfall in the afternoons and evenings. Winds are variable and can be strong.


Zalednění ve fotografiích:













Lorentz national park


GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: The Park lies within the Province of Irian Jaya, and the administrative districts of Jayawijaya, Paniai, Merauke (Southern Division), Fak-fak, Mimika and Enarotali. It stretches for over 150km, from the central cordillera mountains in the north to the Arafura Sea in the south. Access is by air from Jayapura to Wamena and Timika 04º00’-5º15’S, 137º14’-138º20’E


DATE AND HISTORY OF ESTABLISHMENT: The first protection status was given by the Dutch Colonial Government in 1919 with the establishment of the Lorentz Nature Monument. In 1956, the protected status was abolished due to conflicts with local people over unresolved land ownership.

In 1978, it was established as a Strict Nature Reserve (Cagar Alam) by the Indonesian Government with an area of 2,150,000ha. In March 1997 it was declared National park by the Ministry of Forestry, that includes the eastern extension (Mt.Trikora, Mt.Rumphius, Lake Habbema area) and coastal and marine areas.


AREA: The total area is 2,505,600ha, about 0.6% of Irian Jaya’s total size.


LAND TENURE: National Park in the Republic of Indonesia


ALTITUDE: Ranges from sea level to 4,884m at the summit of Puncak Jaya, Indonesia’s highest mountain.


PHYSICAL FEATURES: The Park can be divided into two very distinct zones: the swampy lowlands and the high mountain area of the central cordillera. The central cordillera itself can be subdivided in the eastern part and the western part on the basis of geology and vegetation types, the north/south line at approximately Kwiyawagi village being the dividing line.

The central mountain ranges are the southern portion of two colliding continental plates, which are causing the mountain range to rise. The lowering and rising of the sea level during the glacial and inter-glacial periods of the Pleistocene, along with continuous activity in the mobile belt which characterizes the contact zone of the two colliding lithospheric plates, has continued to promote the great biodiversity of the island of New Guinea in general, and in the Lorentz area in particular. Large tracts of the mountain range, and especially the area formed by the traditional lands of the Amungme (or Amung) are rich in mineral deposits - especially gold and copper.

The Carstenz/Puncak Jaya section of the Jayawijaya Mountain Range still retains small ice caps. It is one of only three equatorial highlands (Sierra Nevada region in the Andes, and Mt. Kenya, Kilimanjaro, Ruwenzori in E.Africa) that is sufficiently high altitude to retain permanent ice, but note that Lorentz glaciers are receding rapidly. Some 3,300ha of snowfields REMAINED IN 1992. The main snowfields comprise five separate areas of ice on the outer margins of Mount Puncak Jaya. These include two small fields which feed the Meren and Carstenz glaciers, and a small hanging glacier on the Carstenz Pyramid.

Puncak Jaya’s summit consists of several peaks (Jayakesuma/Carstenz Pyramid 4,884m, Ngga Pulu 4,862m, Meren 4,808m) that developed from Tertiary rocks (Miocene). This high area was still covered by wide ice caps ( in 1936. These ice caps melted down to an area of just 6.9 km in 1972 and further reduced to 3.3 by 1991. The remaining ice is now divided into three patches the North Wall Firn, the Meren and Carstenz glacier with only 3 of ice left. Based on climatic data, a deficit mass balance will continue as the future trend.

The lowland area is a wide swampy plain, covered with virgin forest and intersected by countless winding rivers and streams, mostly tidal. The largest of these rivers empty into the shallow Arafura Sea, which separates the island of New Guinea from Australia.

The Regional Physical Planning Program for Transmigration recognised 9 physiographic types and regions (beaches, tidal swamps, meander belts, peat swamps, alluvial valleys, alluvial fans, dissected terraces, mountains and alpine summits) with 13 major land systems.


CLIMATE: Lies within the humid tropical climatic zone. Rainfall in the lowland area averages 3700mm (3160-4100mm per annum). Western winds prevail between October and March, while the Eastern winds blow from April until September. The period from December until March is usually characterized by high waves in the coastal areas. Daytime temperatures range from 29-32 degrees C in the lowlands, to below freezing above the 4800m contour line. Early morning snow on top of the summits of Mt. Trikora and Mt. Jaya, or even down to 3800m, occurs regularly, but permanent snow and ice is only to be found in the Mt. Jaya area. In the mountains, the weather conditions are more dependent upon the immediate topography. Rainfall in the higher valleys ranges between 3500 and 5000mm/year.


FLORA: Based on physiographic types, five altitudinal vegetation zones have been identified within Lorentz National Park: lowland zone, montane zone, subalpine zone, alpine zone, and nival zone. Some of the zones are further divided into subzones.

The lowland zone comprises the Beach Subzone (0-4m altitude) covered by a vegetation ranging from pioneer herbaceous communities on the first beach ridge to tall mixed forest inland. The tidal swamp subzone (0-1m) comprises one land system, the Kajapah land system (KJP) consisting of inter-tidal swamps of mangrove and nipah palm. The muddy south coast of the park supports extensive mangrove communities that are probably the most diverse in the world. Five mangrove communities have been described: Avicennia/Sonneratia community, Rhizophora-dominated community, Bruguiera-dominated forest, Nypa-dominated forests, and Landward mixed mangrove forest. The lowland freshwater swamps (of Peat Swamp subzone, 3-50m) are very extensive, reaching 50 kilometers inland in the western part and more than 80 km along the eastern boundary. The swamps contain a diversity of vegetation types, including open water, herbaceous vegetation, grass swamps, peat swamps, woodlands and swamp forests. The alluvial Fan Subzone (50-150m) consists of alluvial fan plains and resembles most closely the theoretical climax vegetation type for the area. Tropical dryland evergreen lowland forest. Dominant families include Annonaceae, Burseraceae, Dipterocarpaceae, Ebenaceae, Fagaceae, Leguminoseae, Meliaceae, Moraceae, Myrtaceae and Stercuilaceae.

The montane altitudinal zone comprises the Kemum Land System, which consists of steep-sided deeply dissected mountain ridges. This altitudinal zone is subdivided into lower montane subzone, mid-montane subzone and upper montane subzone. The lower montane subzone (600-1500m) includes the foothills and lower montane slopes. The forest is very distinct from the surrounding zones. It differs from the alluvial forests in being lower and more closed. These forests form the most floristically rich zones of New Guinea and contain more than 80 genera and 1200 species of trees. The vegetation types of the mid-montane subzone are mixed mid-montane forest, Castanopsis forest, Nothofagus forest, coniferous forest, mid-montane swamp forest, mid-montane sedge-grass swamp, mid-montane Phragmites grass swamps, mid-montane Miscanthus grassland and succession on abandoned gardens. The mid-montane forest in this altitude is referred to as cloud or mossy forest.

The subalpine zone occurs from 3200m to 4170m. All alpine zones are located above 4170m and consist of alpine peaks with bare rocks and residual ice caps. The lower subalpine forest is floristically poor. The forest in this zone has a closed canopy, which reaches to 10m height, with emergents up to 15m. Rapanea sp., Dacrycarpus compactus and Papuacedrus papuas tend to be dominant species. Near the forest limit, the forest is dominated by Ericaceae and Epacridacaeae.

The alpine zone lies between 4170m and 4585m. The alpine vegetation includes all communities growing above the tall shrub limits. These are grassland, heath and tundra. The dominant grasses at 4200m are Agrostis reinwardtii, Deyeuxia brassi, Anthoxantium angustum, Monostachya oreoboloides and Poa callosa. The ground is covered by bryophytes and liches and scattered scrubs are common.


FAUNA: The fauna is estimated to comprise 164 sp. of mammals and 650 sp. of birds and 150,000 sp. of insects.

In the highlands of Lorentz National Park, 6 species are endemic to the Snow Mountains, including the Mountain Quail Anurophasis monorthonyx, the Snow Mountain Robin Petroica archboldii and the Long-tailed Paradiagalla Bird of Paradise, Paradiagalla caruneulata. Twenty six species are endemic to the central Papuan ranges EBA (Endemic Bird Area) while three species are endemic to the south Papuan lowlands EBA. Globally threatened animal species, of which at least 10 species are found in the area, include the Southern Cassowary, Casuarius casuarius, Southern Crowned Pigeon, Goura scheepmakeri and Pesquet’s parrot , Psittrichas fulgidus found in the lowlands. Vulnerable and threatened birds of the mountains include Salvadori’s Teal, Anas waigiuensis, the Snow mountain robin, Petroica archboldi and McGregor’s Bird of Paradise, Macgregoria pulchra.

Mammals include two of the world’s three monotremes; the Short-beaked Echidna Tachyglossus aculeatus, a species shared with Australia, and the Long-beaked Echidna Zaglossus bruijinii, a New Guinea endemic. Mammals also include a range of marsupials including at least four species of cuscus, several species of tree kangaroo Dendrolagus spp. and one species of Dasyuridae which is often referred to as the "Tiger cat" Dasyurus albopunctatus. 324 species of reptiles have been identified in the site. Little is known about the diversity of amphibians. Ninety species have been collected during the survey in 1997 and more species are supposed to occur. Species of conservation concern include the new undescribed species of lizard Lobulia sp. Restricted to the subalpine zone, the rare Fly River Turtle Carettochelys insculpta, which reaches its recorded occurrence in Lorentz National Park. It is threatened by hunting, egg collection and trade) and two species of crocodiles Crocodylus porosus and C. novaeguineae.

It is estimated that more than 100 species of freshwater fish species occur in the park. Catfishes, rainbow fishes, gobies and gudgeons are particularly common.


CULTURAL HERITAGE: The indigenous human population comprises eight (and possibly nine) tribal groups, namely; Nduga, Amungme (Damal), Nakai (Asmat Keenok), Sempan, West Dani and Komoro. The region has been inhabited for over 24,000 years and has evolved some of the most distinctive and long isolated cultures in the world. Of these, the agricultural Dani tribe of the Baliem valley is the best documented. To the south, the Kamoro, Asmat and Sempan tribes inhabit the lowland rivers and swamps and follow a semi-nomadic lifestyle, which is supplemented by simple but effective forms of agriculture. These traditional economies have evolved in harmony with the environment and are controlled by a complex system of cultural taboos and rituals that have helped to prevent over-exploitation of forest resources (Kartawinata and Widjaja, 1988; Petocz, 1989, Manembu, 1991).


LOCAL HUMAN POPULATION: Inhabited by people for at least 5000 years, the park is home to eight (and possibly nine) tribal groups who have to a great extent maintained their traditional life styles and total some 6300 people. The highland people include Amungme (Damal), Western Dani, Nduga, and Ngalik. They practice rotational agriculture of root crops, mainly taro and sweet potatoes. Pigs play an important role in rituals. The lowland people within the park (Asmat, Mimika and a yet undescribed group called Somohai in the southern foothills close to the Baliem gorge depend almost entirely on Sago (Metroxylon sago) as a food source. The Mimika are divided in two linguistic groups, the Sempan and the Kamoro. The Kamoro live in the south-western corner of the park while the Sempan inhabit the south-eastern part. Two Asmat linguistic groups live within Lorentz National Park, Emari Ducur (Sumapero, Nakai, Au, Kapi, As-Atat) and Unir Siran (Keenok: Ipam, Esmapan, Iroko, Jakapis) while the Joerat group lives east of the park boundary around the villages Sawa and Erma. There are approximately 1000 Mimika and 1300 Asmat. The number of Nguga living within the borders of the park is estimated at 1500 people. The Amungme (Damal) tribe is found in the Central Highland, south and north of Mr. Jaya, spread out over a least 30 communities. They are estimated at around 2500 people. Since the 1960’s the Amungme people of the Lorentz area have seen rapid changes come to their land and their lives, due to the initiation of a massive mining operation on their land which commenced operation in 1972. They rarely use land in the upper alpine regions (above 4000m) as this area is considered sacred. The upper montane areas (3000-4000m) are mainly used for hunting and gathering. Amungme villages are usually found at elevations of 1000-2000m above sea level although they now also live, hunt or gather at even lower elevations in lowland forest and on the plains (0-100m).


VISITORS AND VISITOR FACILITIES: Due to security and access difficulties and lack of facilities, tourism was limited to less than 100 people in 1998. Before recent civil unrest, some 50 climbers ascended Puncak Jaya each year. Three trails are used by tourists to Lake Habbema. Hotel facilities are available outside the park at Timika and Wamena.


SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH AND FACILITIES: Many scientific and military expeditions are reported to have occurred in the site. The most famous expedition was led by the Dutchman Colijin in 1936. One member of his team Dr. J.J. Dozy discovered the extremely rich copper and gold deposits in the Carstenz area, and his findings led to a massive mining operation by Freeport Indonesia. Between World War II and recent times, limited scientific work was conducted in the area. In 1996 and 1997 vegetation and wildlife biodiversity surveys were conducted in the area just west of the Lorentz NP as part of Freeport’s reclamation project and environmental impact assessment (Amdal 1997).


CONSERVATION VALUE: In 1991, the area was listed as one of the sites with highest priority for conservation in Indonesia’s National Biodiversity Action Plan.

The park is particularly important for its size and richness, diversity and representativeness of its flora and fauna. ie. Largest forested protected area in Asia/Pacific region. It is an almost 90% pristine, unspoiled wilderness. It is of greatest importance for the protection of an integrated wilderness transect of southern Irian Jaya, which ranges from major lowland ecosystems through mid altitudes to alpine ecosystems. It protects species that need to move along an altitudinal gradient throughout the year.


CONSERVATION MANAGEMENT: In 1990, the Directorate General of Forest Protection and Natural Resource Management formally approached the WWF Indonesia Program to request assistance in conducting research and designing a management plan. In co-operation with PHPA, WWF prepared a framework park management system that will take into account the traditional land tenure and resource use systems of the tribal communities living within the park.

From 1990 onwards, WWF has gathered basic social and human ecological information on the various tribal groups in the park as a first step in the process of developing the management plan. However, in 1996, a group of scientists, including WWF and PHPA staff were abducted in the north eastern part of the reserve and due to the political unrest in the Lorentz area, surveys were restricted to the buffer zone and the Asmat area of the park. Despite the hostage crisis, WWF and PHPA in cooperation with the Government have started a participatory resource mapping program to rationalize land use planning in the buffer zone and involve local people in boundary delineation, park zonation, and buffer zone development, particularly since the status changed from Strict Nature Reserve to National Park in 1997.

All major stakeholders (provincial and district governments, NGOs, local communities and private sector such as Freeport Inc.) are involved in management planning. They participated in a Lorentz National Park planning workshop and agreed that the Lorentz should be nominated as a World Heritage Site.

The government of Indonesia is promoting private sector investments and government sponsored projects such as the development of a new town, infrastructure, transmigration, agriculture and industries. To minimise impact on the park, the provincial government in co-operation with Freeport Indonesia have developed a spatial plan that directs all development away from the Park and creates a large buffer zone along its western boundary.


MANAGEMENT CONSTRAINTS: A number of management problems are due to the activities of the large Freeport gold mine, which is located on the slopes of the Carstenz massif near Mount Puncak Jaya and which began in 1972. The predominantly open cast mining techniques have had a number of negative environmental impacts, including river pollution, oil spillages, logging for fuel supplies and extensive building development for the 4,000 strong work force (Kartawinata and Widjaja, 1988; Petocz, 1989). According to Survival International (1988), the development has also had a negative impact upon the local indigenous Amungme tribe, many of whom have become displaced by the operation. There is however a Law No.5 and the joint decree from the Ministry of Forestry and Mines and Energy 1989 and 1991, prohibiting any mining inside national parks.

Other threats include three road schemes which would traverse Lorentz National Park including a road between Timika on the western boundary and Aramsolki in the centre of the park (Kartawinata and Widjaja, 1988). A large area of the Park was under mining exploration but the larger of these have been declared invalid. One petroleum exploration title remains in the park, located in the south eastern edge of the park and held by Comico. Negotiations are underway with the company to reduce or eliminate the incursion into the park.

A minor and localised threat comes from uncontrolled tourism developments in the Lake Habbema area (a high altitude swampland). Trekking tourism to Mt. Jaya has already had a severe ecological impact due to littering and firewood collection. In September 1997, an extraordinary drought caused by the El Nino phenomenon led to severe forest fires starting from small-scale land clearings by local farmers, affecting at least 6,000ha within the park. A forestry concession outside the eastern boundary of Lorentz also directly affects the site by promoting water access illegal logging. Hunting and trade of protected species and the introduction of exotic species has been identified as a problem.

STAFF: 40 regional rangers based in 4 field stations. In 2000, Park Directors and additional staff will be appointed and a Park HQ established.

BUDGET: WWF has had a field project since 1990 with about $300,000 spent in 1997-1998. The project has been extended for 3 years with support from US AID

LOCAL ADDRESS: Director General PHPA, Ministry of Forestry, Gedung Manggala Wana Bakti, Blok IV Lantai 8, Jl. Gatot Subroto, Jakarta 10270, Indonesia Tel/Fax; (62) 21-5734818

Provincial Ministry of Forestry, Natural Resources Conservation Div., Jl. Raya Abepura 90, Ketaruja, Jayapura 99351, Irian Jaya. Fax 967-813

WWF - Indonesia Program (WWF-IP), P.O. Box 7928 Jl. SKM, Jakarta 12079, Indonesia.


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